June 28, 2006
The human mind has proved itself effete and tardy. Very careful scrutiny and ransacking of the mind is required to reach the heart of any matter, but it eschews and cuts corners at every possible opportunity. As the world turns, new discoveries and laws are made in social circles and all the more so in the realm of religion, where some incidences have become standard clichés or myths of wisdom over the passage of years. No one deems it necessary to think twice as to how most of these parables or folklore became the criteria of wisdom and faith although, these doctrines of wisdom might have been twisted through the generations.
The insurmountable impediment while examining, scrutinizing or giving our serious thought on any religious myth or cliché is the righteous halo we have woven around it. We consider ourselves of a blasphemy, a sin of the highest intensity or committing a blunder of the superlative degree, to question the origins of any religious myth or cliché. No matter how much we make the person realize the importance of cogent rationale on these standard religious clichés, nonetheless, his level of thought hesitates to enter into broader horizons. It is commonly observed that a person is more inclined towards finding a justification of the religious cliché one adheres to, rather than having an open and an unbiased mind. More formidable than the inner turmoil are the fears of wrath from ones religious connoisseurs. The derogatory opinion and threats of being outcaste by these demigods, do not allow an individual to muster courage enough to give ones serious thoughts on these myths or stories attributed towards the bulwarks with unshakable faith.
The Need for Research
On the other hand, if we agree and are of the opinion, that only ‘reality’ must have value, that has been through the process of our rational sifting and only that ‘faith’ carries weight which has been acquired after our thorough speculation and cognitive experiences, then it becomes incumbent upon us to weigh the pros and cons of any religious issue. No matter how many treacherous peaks we may have to climb. At this point, it is advised to refrain from our personal conflicting religious experiences and do away with all external fears. In this connection we shall endeavour to consider a common religious doctrine, that in our subconscious, appears as part and parcel of the core of our religious set of beliefs.
You question any Muslim today as to how would he define the system or ‘DEEN’ of Islam. Without any hesitation we are replied that, ‘Islam is a compound of the Holy Quran and Hadith.’ The indoctrination of this reply is so deep down in our hearts, we do not have the faintest notion of doubt about it when answering, no matter how glaringly self-contradictory the myth may appear to us. The important question is, the myth or story we take so much for granted, the sentence we speak everyday with so much confidence and strong conviction; has it ever been brought to our personal scrutiny and examined by rationale, before being accepted by us? Or do we accept, merely because it has traveled down to us through many, many generations. If that does not happen to be the case, then let us have the courage to face the culmination of the ancestral paths we have chosen. By rationalizing our belief we are obtaining dual advantage. If the myth or cliché stands the scrutiny of our cognizance, then it shall become more profound and ingrained in our minds and close to our heart beats, otherwise we will know, we relinquished a myth that was nothing else but a rigmarole of someone’s fantasy. Even more so, it will open our eyes to the fact that our belief was based on sheer custom. The process of cogent reasoning when accepting any statement is also reaffirmed by the Holy Quran that characterizes momins as:
[25:73] And those who do not fall (forsaketh reason) for these ayats (Allah’s words) like the dumb and deaf.
Reasoning also coincides with one of the postulates of the Holy Quran, wherein is said:
[17:36] Do not follow that of which you knoweth not; remember, your sense of sight, hearing and cognitive capabilities will be questioned.
It is hoped we are of no two opinions over the fact, that Deen in reality is one that is invincible, in other words which is not based on fantasy or illusion. So it is said in Quran:
[10:36] Most of these (people) are prone to fantasy and hearsay. In actuality ‘illusion’ will have no benefit in comparison with ‘reality.’ And Allah knoweth everyone as to what they do.
It becomes mandatory for us, when it is said, ‘Islam is a composition of the Holy Quran and Hadith,’ to determine whether in actuality it happens to be the case or not. Is it in reality true that both of the above mentioned books have been revealed as Deen in Islam through MuhammadPBUH? The Holy Book reiterates numerous times, that this Book is nothing else but the ‘Truth.’
[35:31] “What we have revealed unto you is truth…………”
The opening words of this book of wisdom are… . There is absolutely no doubt about this book. In other words, it is factual and not based on fantasy or illusion. This is as far as the spirit of the Book is concerned. Now how was it revealed and compiled and in what capacity is it going to exist, Quran further says:
[75:17] Verily, unto us is the compilation and transmission of its knowledge.
It goes beyond compilation and explicitly asserts that we hold its responsibility as far as its preservation is concerned. Till the Day of Judgment not a single letter will be changed. It augurs:
[15:9] Verily! We have revealed, unto us lies its preservation.
To give this notion of preservation a practical shape, it further commands:
[5:67] O Muhammad! Deliver it to the people, what is being revealed unto you.
What did the Messenger MuhammadPBUH do to implement this command of Almighty, we nearly all of us are aware of it. Whatever was revealed unto the Messenger, he had each and every letter of the revelation dictated to his disciples or followers. Thousands were made to memorize the revelations on MuhammadPBUH by heart. Not only that, MuhammadPBUH himself listened to those verses who had learnt them by heart and then cast his seal of approval upon them. Messenger MuhammadPBUH before taking his last breadth, ascertained and made sure that whatever had been revealed unto him, had been delivered to the humankind in its complete form. In his famous sermon of last Friday of the last Ramadan, before his soul departed from this world he bore Allah as his witness and confirmed from his audience, that he had delivered all revelations to them in its complete form. In the caliphate period, after the unbearable demise of MuhammadPBUH, the four caliphs made it obligatory upon themselves, the sacred duty of preserving the Holy Quran. Henceforth, these holy scriptures, which are in the hearts of myriad of Muslims and also on paper, are coming down through the years in its original and true shape. Even foreign religious scholars do not question its verity.
Muqaam-e-Hadith (The Actual Status of Hadith)
by Allam Perveez
June 25, 2006
A few examples of the explanation of ayaat from Quran. After reading, you all can decide for yourself, whether we should attribute it to the Messenger Muhammad or not?
YOUR WIVES ARE LIKE YOUR FIELDS:
It is narrated in chapter Baq’ra in Quran:
[2:223] Your wives are similar to your fields. You can go to them as you go to your fields.
Again it is very obvious, the purpose of going to your wives is, when you want to sow your seed or want off springs. For this, just as a farmer sows seeds in the proper seasons, so you must also conjoin with your wives at proper time periods.
The explanation of this ayaat in Imam Bokhari’s Kitab ul Tafseer, is as follows:
Explanation: Nafi reports that while reading Quran, Abdullah Ibne OmarR never spoke with anybody. One day I approached him when he was reading Quran. When he reached the words in chapter Baq’ra in Quran, he asked me if I knew as to when this ayaat was revealed. I replied in the negative. He then explained the glory of its revelation and resumed his recitation of Quran again. Abdul Samad has said that we receive a tradition from Ibne OmarR that says this ayaat was revealed, because some men were copulating with women. JabarR narrates the Jews, who said; whosoever copulates with his wife from backside shall have cross-eyed progeny. It is in those days this ayaat was revealed, proving the Jews of being wrong. Meaning, women can be engaged in any way one wants, in matters of copulation.” (Sahih Bukhari: Kitab'ul Tafsir)
Explanation of This Hadith:
Allama Ainee has first copied the hadith from Bokhari in the following manner:
God’s order on the subject was explained to us by Isaae, who was told by Nadr Bin Shameel, who in turn was told by Aun to tell Nafay that, ‘until OmarR did not finish reading Quran he never spoke with anybody. One day I sat with him with a Quran, when he was reading chapter Baq’ra. He then asked me, if I knew at what period in time, this ayaat was revealed? When I replied in the negative, he then explained its context to me. The narrator then moves on and quotes Abdul Samad, that he was told by his father, who was told by Ayub (Sukhtiani), who was told by Nafay, who was told by Ibn OmarR that the explanation of is that you can copulate in…. with your wife. This has also been explained by Muhammad Bin Yahya Ibn Saeed, from his father, who got it from Obaidullah, who got it from Nafay, who got it from Ibn OmarR.
After all this Allama Ainee further writes:
In the original book of Bokhari, there is a blank space. Then he goes on to indicate that it means the private part of your wife, but this is not correct.This tradition is explained by Ibn Jareer, who is told by Abu Qulaba?, who has copied from Abdul Samad Bin Abdul Warris, who was told by his father, who uses the word (To copulate with your wife in Anus) in his explanation. (Umdah Tul Qari).
COPULATION IN ANUS:
This was the elucidation given by Allama Ainee. Now let us read what Hafiz Ibn Hajr Asqalani, has to say about this tradition: “Ibnul Arabi has copied in Siraj ul Mureed, that Bokhari has copied this hadith in Tafseer and said after these words. A blank space has been left. This problem is very famous. Muhammad Bin Shaban has authored a complete book on this topic. And Muhammad Bin Shahnoon? Has proved it in his article, the hadith of Ibn OmarR is about copulating with woman in the Anus.
Mazri says, that priests are divided on this issue. Those who believe this tradition as being Halal. Have taken the above-mentioned ayaat for their support. Those who are against it say the concerned ayaat was revealed to defeat the statement of Jews. As has been quoted by Jabar.”
Muqaam-e-Hadith (The Actual Status of Hadith) by Allam Perveez
June 21, 2006
June 21, 2006
I have been very busy lately but InshahAllah will be posting atleast one or two articles every week so please keep visiting the blog.
Same article in Urdu – Coming soon..
At the close of hijra100 we notice that Caliph Omar bin Abdul Aziz on his own, had some work done on Hadith. After him was Imam Ibne Shahab Zuhry who at the order of Caliph Bannu Umayya compiled a concise edition of Hadith and that also according to its author was against his desire. At present we neither have any copy or manuscript of hadith of Hazrat Omar bin Abdul AzizR nor the concise edition of Shahab Zuhry. Although ahadith confered in their names are mentioned at a later period, when the need was felt to bring into record the historical events of Holy Messenger's life. The material for the historical records was a conglomerate of all that had been coming down to them through the generations. Some writers narrowed their research to only those records that refer to the parables, gospels or sayings of the Messenger Muhammad (PBUH). This collection is titled Hadith (the very word hadith means conversations).The first compilation of Hadith that is present today belongs to Imam Malik (died hijra179) and is called Muta. In it we find three to five hundred various ahadith, it further informs us about the activities of Messenger's companions in Medina. After Imam Malik we find various other scholars venturing on this subject and compiling several different editions of Hadith.During the Abbasids period we observe spectacular progress in the field of Islamic arts and sciences and along with that the number of hadith compilations also increased.
Hamam Ibn Mamba's Manuscript
What the religious scholars of hadith, after much struggle, have succeeded in discovering, has come down to us under the title of Hamam ibne Mamba's manuscript. This was published by Dr. Hameed ullah several years ago from Hyderabad (India). It is believed that Hamam ibne Mamba was the student of Abu HurairaR who died in hijra 131. In this manuscript there are 138 ahadith in total, which its author states were compiled before his teacher Abu Huraira. His teacher is believed to have departed from us in hijra 58. By other means we can say that this manuscript was compiled before hijra 58. We also notice that Imam Mamba writes these hadiths before hijra 58 in Medina and is able to obtain only 138 ahadith. Whereas in hijra 300 when Imam Bokhari decides to collect ahadith he gathers six hundred thousand. (Imam Humbal found 1,000,000 ahadith and Imam Yahya bin Moeen found 1,200,000 hadiths) Another fact we observe that those ahadith that have been confered upon Abu Huraira amount to thousands, though his student was able to write only 138 ahadith. However, in the first century of the Islamic calendar, the sum total of all individual collection is Imam Mamba's 138 ahadith. There are no other written records of Holy Messenger's gospel belonging to that period of Islamic history.
– END –
Muqaam-e-Hadith (The Actual Status of Hadith) by Allam Perveez
The most famous of all compilations that has come down to us is known as the 'Sahiheen,' these books are authored by Imam Bokhari and Imam Muslim. Imam Bukhari who died in hijra 256 had made a collection of 600,000 ahadith. After sifting through various ahadith he finally decided to retain 2,630 and produced them in book form under the title of 'Us'hal Kitab baaduz Kitab e Allah' (The most pure book after the book of Allah). This Hadith is now being pronounced as inseparable part of the Deen of Islam. Six different editions of Hadith are considered to be the most authentic by the Sunniites and are called 'Sahaa Sitaa.' The Shiites have their own collections that are different from Sunniites. Those six editions come under the following titles:
- Sahih Bukhari
- Sahih Muslim
- Abu Dawood
- Ibne Maja
Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) – Born in c. 571, Passed away in c. 632
IMAM BUKHARI: After 180 years of Prophet Mohammad's (PBUH) demise Bukhari was born in Bukhari and died in hijra 260 in Samarkand (c. 810-870) . It is said that after wandering through different cities and villages he collected close to six hundred thousand hadiths and after sifting through he found 7,300 ahadith that he considered close to being authentic. Some have been repeated in various chapters. If we do not count the repetitions, the total figures we get are 2,630 or 2,762.
IMAM MUSLIM: Muslim bin Hajaj belonged to a city in Iran called Nishapur. He was born in hijra 204 and died in hijra 261 (c. 821-875).
TRIMZI: Imam Abu Isa Muhammad Trimzi was from the city called Trimz in Iran. He was born in hijra 209 and died in hijra 279.
ABU DAWOOD: He comes from Seestan in Iran. He was born in hijra 202 and died in hijra 275.
IBNE MAJA: Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Zaid ibne Maja came from northern Iran, a city that goes by the name of Kazdin. His year of birth is hijra 209 and he died in hijra 273.
IMAM NISAAYEE: Imam Abdur Rahman Nisaayee came from a city called Nisa in Iran's eastern province of Khorasan. He died in hijra 303.
After a brief introduction of these religious scholars one can easily infer that (a) they all came from Iran. (b) None of these scholars was from Arab descent. We also notice that none of the Arabs were prepared to do what these scholars have done. (c) All of them were born in the third century. (d) Whatever ahadith were collected, were all hearsay, (e) there were no written records of hadith before their collections.
From these thousands of ahadith that were gathered, they chose some and discarded others. The criterion of selection was their personal judgment. For these gospels, their authors had no decree of any kind from God (revealing to them as to which hadith to choose and which ones to discard). Nor we find they had the consent or approval of the Holy Messenger (proving that the selected ahadith were the true parables or sayings of the Messenger). Again, there were no previous records that they could have borrowed the material for their collections. All the sayings were just word of the mouth they gathered from various cities and villages. After giving their own judgment or approval these religious scholars selected some and discredited others on their own. Hence the denounement of Hadith. (After having assessed the long chase of the departed Messenger Muhammad PBUH, it appears as though Allah was no more an important Being in the life of Muslims. Which was quite contrary to what Muhammad was trying to teach.)
How can anyone vouch for these kinds of ahadith based on hearsay or prove, that in actuality these were the original words of the Messenger? Keeping in mind that, after two or two and a half centuries, not a single word could be guaranteed that it belonged to the Messenger, or has been conveyed from father to son or teacher to student by memorizing. These were garbled words of previous centuries.
(In as much as I would want to hear the exact words of the last of the Great Messengers; at the same time to accept a version that is not first hand, second hand or even third, forth or fifth hand, does not make any sense at all. On the contrary, we are defeating our very purpose for which the Ahadith were written i.e., to seek the Truth. And by accepting a clone, we are corroding our own system of thought.)
It would not be futile to know the number of ahadith that have been discredited.
|Ahadith Compiler||Found Ahadith||Selected Ahadith
for the book
|Imam Abu Dawood||500,000||4,800|
|Imam Ibn Maja||400,000||4,000|
Muqaam-e-Hadith (The Actual Status of Hadith) by Allam Perveez
June 14, 2006
The following article is in Urdu:
Aateesh-e-Intiqaam, by H. A Baig