July 1, 2007
Was Prophet Mohammad (SA) illiterate?
The real meaning of word “Ummi”
Allah claims in Quran that it is reveled in “[26:195] Plain/simple Arabic language” “بلسان عربي مبين” 26:195
and it explains itself “[10:24] Thus clearly do We spell out these messages unto people who think.”
The word UMMI in Quranic context does not mean “illiterate”. Arabic Language is based on root word system and each word can reflect multiple meanings, but the beauty of Quran is that it repeats the Ayats to make it very clear. “[6:65] See how We repeat the messages that they may understand!”
The best classical Arabic work ever published in the line of lexicons and dictionaries like “Al-Mufradat fi-Gharib al-Quran“, “Lisan al-Arab“, “Taj al-Arus min Jawahir al Qamus” and “The Arabic English lexicon by Edward W Lane”, word Ummi means “Arab who have no revealed scripture of his own“. In Quran the word refers to people who have not received a Revelation before and are not part of the Jewish people.
QXP: Among the People of the Scripture, there is he whom you can trust with a heap of gold, and He will readily return it to you. And among them is he who, if you trust him with a single gold coin, He will not repay you unless you keep after them. This is because they say and believe, “We owe no way (of honesty) to the Gentiles/Ummiyyeen.” Thus they speak lies about God, and they very well know it.
Yusuf Ali: Among the People of the Book are some who, if entrusted with a hoard of gold, will (readily) pay it back; others, who, if entrusted with a single silver coin, will not repay it unless thou constantly stoodest demanding, because, they say, “there is no call on us (to keep faith) with these ignorant (Pagans).” but they tell a lie against Allah, and (well) they know it.
Pickthal: Among the People of the Scripture there is he who, if thou trust him with a weight of treasure, will return it to thee. And among them there is he who, if thou trust him with a piece of gold, will not return it to thee unless thou keep standing over him. That is because they say: We have no duty to the Gentiles. They speak a lie concerning Allah knowingly.
So the correct translation of [62:2] is the following:
[62:2] He it is Who has sent a Messenger among those who had never before received a Scripture – to convey unto them His Messages, to make them grow in humanity, to instruct them in the Scripture and wisdom, Judgment and establishment of God’s Rule on earth – whereas before that they were obviously lost in error.
[‘Ummi’ = Gentile = Non-Israelite = Unlettered = A nation (the Arabs) that had never received a Scripture before. ‘Zaku’ or ‘Tazkiah’ = Growth = Purity from
vice = Development of ‘self’ = Self-actualization. ‘Hikmah’ = wisdom = Judgment = Governance = Political Rule.]
He never read any book of scripture before and never wrote anything prior to the Qruan, see the proof [29:48] وماكنت تتلو من قبله من كتاب ولاتخطه بيمينك اذا لارتاب المبطل:
Yusuf Ali: And thou wast not (able) to recite a Book before this (Book came), nor art thou (able) to transcribe it with thy right hand: In that case, indeed, would the talkers of vanities have doubted.
Pickthal: And thou (O Muhammad) wast not a reader of any scripture before it, nor didst thou write it with thy right hand, for then might those have doubted, who follow falsehood.
QXP: For, (O Prophet) you were never able to read a book or Scripture before this (Qur’an), nor could you write anything with your own hand. Or else, they who try to disprove the Truth might have some cause to doubt it. ((2:23). ‘Biyameenik’ = With your right hand = With your own hand).
” من قبله” “before this” explains that he never read/write any book of “scripture” before the Qruan – means he knew how to read/write.
As Prophet Mohammed (SA) was for 30 years a successful businessman, being brought up in the elite family of the region, and married to a successful businesswoman. It is unacceptable to think he couldn’t read or write. How could he have known the scribes were writing down the Quran in the correct way? These misunderstandings were created later on through folklore and was picked up by the 3th century clergy.
The only illiterates are the “Mullahs” who are continuously spreading the false “Riwayats/Hadits” of Prophet being uneducated.
March 8, 2007
Another great book on the reality of “Darood Shareef” درود شر یف
Must read it and please as I always said, let others know about it, download it and email it to as many people as you know …
Click here to read the book (pdf format):
“He has only forbidden you dead meat and blood, and the flesh of swine and that on which any other name has been invoked besides that of God.” [2:173]
Muslim religious law requires, among other things, that an animal must be drained of blood before it is halal – permissible for consumption. Ritual slaughter according to Jewish dietary law – shechita – has the same prescription. Most Muslim slaughterers believe that drainage will only be complete if the throat of the animal is slit without stunning it first, but now Haluk Anil of the University of Bristol, UK, and colleagues have shown that the amount of blood drained from the animal, and the rate of blood loss, is the same regardless of whether or not it is stunned first.
Anil’s team have already shown that stunning does not affect “bleed-out” in sheep. Now they have done the same thing in cattle. They measured the bleed-out in 13 cattle killed by the tradition Muslim method, and 13 killed in the same way, but having first been stunned by a captive-bolt-pistol blow to the head (Animal Welfare, vol 15, p 325).
“Stunning does not impede blood loss, therefore this objection cannot be used any more,” says Anil, who is coordinating a European Union project to examine legislation and welfare issues related to religious slaughter, both shechita and halal.
Source: New Scientist (03 December 2006)
November 28, 2006
I am intentionally repeating this post :
I was reading this article the other day and found it very important and an eye opening for all of us. Please ignore the alignment of text (i’ve tried my best to scan it straight :-))
I’ll soon InshahAllah translate it in English for non-Urdu readers.
Sangsar (in a pdf format)
November 15, 2006
[6:112] We have permitted the enemies of every prophet human and jinn devils to inspire in each other fancy words, in order to deceive. Had your Lord willed, they would not have done it. You shall disregard them and their fabrications.
Bukhari (and other collectors of Hadits) relied upon the self-invented art of “Transmission” for which he states that a “Hadith” may be accepted as authentic or rejected based on WHOM the Hadith is coming from. Bukhari made a study of the Prophet’s (PBUH) companions and established that they were all trustworthy. He then asked about people who came after them, and if the public “hearsay” was that this or that person was reputable, then Bukhari had no problem accepting a “Hadith” transmitted from that source. To get over the obstacle of “objectivity” and the fact that Hadith was based mainly on “hearsay”, Bukhari found a very convenient Hadith (which Islamic scholars still quote) that gives the companions of the prophet and all Hadith narrators super-human abilities which enabled them to memorise word for word the sayings of the prophet without loss or distortion. Although the above may not sound scientific or even objective to many, it is a factual method which was used to obtain the 2nd source of Islamic law.
Many opposing groups and other religions have made it a practice to embarrass Muslims by quoting “dubious” Hadith’s which compare a Woman to a Donkey (the Hadith on what stops Prayer) or that the Majority of Women will go to Hell! (Hadith about Isra & Mi’raj).
Many Muslims typically react to the above accusations by becoming angry and evasive, saying that these people want only to “Slander” the Prophet (PBUH). What these same Muslims fail to realise is that the “TRUTH” can withstand any amount of questioning and cross-examination.
October 30, 2006
However moved we may be, by the uniformity of our religious liturgy, the case with our Hadith somehow, does not seem to hold water. We must not omit the fact that nowhere has Allah held the responsibility of hadith, as it has done in the case of the Holy Quran. That is of utmost significance, since the hadith consists of parables and sayings of Messenger MuhammadPBUH and nothing else, we must consider Muhammad’s attitude towards hadith. If Hadith is part of Deen, then the procedures Messenger adopted for Quran are not implemented in the case of hadith. Like having it memorized, then listening to his followers for any errors or that he satisfactorily approved what had been dictated and written, that over and above all, it was in its pure and authentic form. Though the mind questions, if hadith is all that significant, why the Messenger did not take the same measures as he did in the case of Holy Quran? On the contrary, we find in that very hadith, Muhammad PBUH clearly says:
Do not have anything else dictated from me, save the Quran. If anyone of you has written any word other than the Quran, erase it!
We are also told that this was a temporary mandate from the Messenger. That at another time, it is observed, upon the request of Hazrat Abdullah bin OmarR, the Messenger permitted them to write down his sayings. As is noticed, the Messenger only permitted his followers, he did not make it mandatory for them to write, as we find he did, in the compilation of the Holy Quran. Moreover, he did not at anytime, ask as to what they had written or heard or question the verity of their writings. Neither we find MuhammadPBUH adopting measures to safeguard or preserve those hadiths as he had done with Quran. It is usually said and believed that in those days the Arabs had stupendous memory and also those sayings were very dear to the hearts of the disciples. Now the mind again questions, if memory was enough of a viable resource to be depended upon, why then was the need felt to have the Holy Quran dictated and written on paper, then recited again to remove any possibility of errors or mistakes during the process of its dictation. If any disciple of the Messenger had learnt those hadiths or sayings of the Messenger by heart, we still are not in a position to vouch for it. Until and unless those sayings were not verified, and the seal of approval cast on them by the Messenger Muhammad PBUH himself, we cannot depend on them. We also have no knowledge of the Messenger ever giving to the Muslims the Hadith in the form of a book and coming down to us through the generations. We observe the Messenger MuhammadPBUH did not take any of the precautions in the case of hadith, as he did for the Holy Quran. What we have gathered from the historical resources, is that we do find documents other than the Quran, that were written under the orders of MuhammadPBUH. For example, contracts, treatises and letters that he sent to other tribes. What in this matter, has come to our knowledge and what we have been able to gather, at the time of Messenger’s demise, are the following:
- A register containing the list of names of 1500 holy disciples or followers of Muhammad PBUH.
- The letters MuhammadPBUH wrote to various kings and rulers of that age or time.
- Documents of treatise and other obligatory rules.
- Hadiths from Hazrat Abdullah bin Omar, Hazrat Ali and Hazrat Uuns who wrote them on their own.
No one knows if these sayings written down were ever verified by the Messenger himself or not and whether they have come down to us in its original version. We have no knowledge of any collected works or hadith that Messenger himself gave to the Muslims before his departure from this world. We do in fact find in the Hadith of Bukhari, that someone asked Hazrat Ibn e AbbassR as to what MuhammadPBUH had left behind for the Muslims. He said,
‘The Messenger left behind nothing, save the Quran.’ (Bukhari, Vol. III, Fuzail ul Quran.) (Sahih Bukhari: Virtues of the Quran)
The Deeds of Disciples
As we glance through the names of Islam’s historic personalities, we notice that after Muhammad’s lifetime, the caliphate period is also worthy of being looked into. In the Musnad of Imam Ahmad we find the disciples saying,
“Whatever utterances we heard from Muhammad PBUH we noted them down in writing. One day it so happened the Messenger appeared and asked us about the subject of our writings. We replied that whatsoever we hear from his Majesty’s lips we transform it into writing. To which he said,
“What! Are you compiling another book along with the book of Allah?”
Meaning in other words that this cannot be made possible. He then insisted and commanded us that we ought to keep Allah’s words pure and that we must not amalgamate them with any kind of ambiguities. So we made a bonfire of our notes and parables in an open field.” (Quoted from Tudween e Hadith, page 249)
At another instance we find Imam Zuhbi mentioning Hazrat Abu Bakr who gathering the disciples of the Messenger, after his passing away said,
‘You people have so much self-contradictory gossip about MuhammadPBUH that you squabble among yourselves. The future generations will become more rigid than you all and quarrel more. You must not feign sayings of Holy Messenger that are fallacious. If anyone inquires you can always say that we have the Holy Quran between us. Whatsoever has been granted must be made permissible and whatsoever has been prohibited must be relinquished.’ (Quoted in Tazkara tul Hifaaz e Zuhby, page 321)
Then Imam Zuhbi quotes another parable of the Messenger’s wife Hazrat Aisha and writes:
“The wife of the Messenger mentions that her father (Hazrat Abu Bakr) had collected the Hadiths of the Messenger which were five hundred in number. She says,
‘One night I noticed that my father was restless in his bed and was very perturbed. I asked him if he was in some bodily pain or was this condition due to any bad news that he might have heard? He did not answer my question. In the morning he asked me to bring him the collection of Hadiths and then he made a bonfire of them all.” (Quoted in Tudween e Hadith, page 285-88)
As far as Hazrat Omar’s caliphate is concerned, Allama Ibne Abdulbur has mentioned him in his famous book Jama e Biyaan ul ilm, wherein he says:
“OmarR wanted to compile the sayings and parables of the Messenger. He asked from the companions of Messenger MuhammadPBUH to grant him a decree, to which they faithfully conceded. Inspite of the companions consent Hazrat OmarR was not convinced. For complete one month Hazrat OmarR performed Istekhara. Then one morning when Allah calmed his body and mind and he was able to concentrate on the issue at hand in serenity, he talked to his people about his decision to compile the hadiths. But then he said I thought about the generations that have passed before us, who wrote books and adhered to those books so strongly that they forgot the Book of Allah. I swear upon Allah, I will not let the word of Allah be amalgamated with other words.” (Quoted in Tadween e Hadith, page 394)
This was decided because the Messenger had ordered every companion not to ask him to dictate anything else besides the Quran. Whosoever has written anything else besides Quran must erase it. Omar did not finish the matter here. He not only prohibited and banned the collection of ahadith, he went a step ahead and as is written in Tubqaat ibn Sa’ad:
“During Hazrat Omar’s caliphate the ahadith were in abundance. He made sure by putting the people under oath that whatever hadith the people had in their possession ought to be brought before him. As ordered, the public submitted whatever they possessed. He then ordered to make a public bonfire of those hadiths.” (vol.5, page 141)
This was the third incident of igniting the hadith collection. The first ignition took place when the Messenger commanded. The second instance was when Hazrat Abu BakrR did the same with his own collection and the third time Hazrat OmarR took all the collections from the people under oath and publicly ignited them. All this took place in the capital city. As to what happened afterwards we get a glimpse of it in Hafiz Ibne Abdulbur’s Jama e Biyaan wherein he states:
“Hazrat Omar ibn KhattaabR first expressed his desire to compile the ahadith, it dawned upon him later that it will not be appropriate. So he sent a circular in the districts and cantonments to destroy whichever hadith anybody was in possession of.” (Tadween e Hadith,Vol.1, page 400)
He writes further and gives us a detailed account, of how elaborate and precautionary measures were taken for the compilation of the Holy Quran. If the government wanted, what possibly could have come in the way of adopting the same policy towards the compilation of the Hadith. He states that the government of that time did not adopt the same policy towards the Hadith with a specific purpose. This was the situation at the time of the Messenger and his companions, of hadith.
- The Messenger ordered his companions not to ask him to dictate anything else besides the Quran.
- Whatever Hadith collection was present among the companions, it was ordered to be ignited.
- Hazrat Abu Bakr made a bonfire of his own collection and banned others from quoting any hadith.
- Hazrat Omar after giving his best thought for one month, reached the conclusion to ban the compilation and collection of ahadith.
- Hazrat Omar also asked to submit all ahadith in possession of the public who were under oath and then ignited them all.
- He also sent a circular in all cities to destroy any evidence of hadith. This did not happen by chance, according to Maulana Munazar Ahsin Gilani this policy was adopted with a definite purpose in mind.
Muqaam-e-Hadith (The Actual Status of Hadith)
by Allam Perveez
October 23, 2006
Happy Eid to all of you.